In medicine, an infection is an infection of an organ or tissue with various microorganisms, as well as parasites and certain insects. Therefore, infectious prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi.
The first group of microorganisms most often becomes the culprit. Think about what causes prostate infection, how the disease will manifest and how it can be treated in men.
Causes of Infectious Prostatitis
A healthy man has a defense mechanism against various foreign organisms - the immune system. If this mechanism fails or conditions develop under which the infections are stronger than the immune system, the prostate tissue becomes infected, which leads to an inflammatory process and unpleasant symptoms.
Infectious prostatitis can be caused by:
- Sex with an infected partner. Even if a woman has no visible symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease, but there is a pathogen, a man can become infected. As a rule, urethritis begins first, after an infection along the urinary system enters the prostate and causes prostatitis there.
- The existing source of infection in the body. The pathogen can enter the prostate through the bloodstream from other organs in case of pneumonia, flu, caries and other diseases.
- Lifestyle features. Alcohol, nicotine, lack of physical activity weaken the immune system, with the result that bacteria that constantly reside in the skin and mucous membranes of a person become the culprits of the disease.
- Injuries. When you play sports, fight or have an accident, a mechanical effect can be exerted on the perineum, which leads to damage to the prostate tissues and can cause an infectious form of the disease.
- Hypothermia. Due to the low ambient temperature and the consequent freezing, the immune system may not be able to deal with the bacteria that have entered the body.
Infection of the prostate gland is possible with certain medical procedures and surgeries. For example, prostatitis can be caused by catheterization, which is done in violation of all rules and regulations. In this case, urethritis develops first and only then, as a complication, prostatitis. The disease can also be a complication of the biopsy.
Sexually transmitted infections are the most dangerous to men's health.
Symptoms of the infectious form
Infectious prostatitis is always acute, the symptoms appear unexpectedly for the patient, they intensify quickly and cause serious concern. It is impossible to ignore the signs of this disease.
The men come to the doctors with the following complaints:
- Sharp, often throbbing pain between the anus and the ovaries. It can "give" to the genitals, waist or abdomen.
- Increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees, fever, chills. The temperature in the rectum can rise and in the armpits can be maintained within the normal range.
- Frequent urination and urge to urinate, especially at night.
- Pain when urinating, intermittent urine flow, burning in the urethra.
- Weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle or joint pain.
- Stool Disorder - Constipation develops or pain occurs during defecation.
- Decreased sexual drive, sluggish erection, painful ejaculation.
If a man is not in a hurry to go to the doctor and suffers from pain or tries to treat himself with antibiotics and folk remedies, the pain and urinary disorders can pass after some time. The illusion of recovery appears. In fact, the infection has not disappeared and the acute form of prostatitis has evolved over the years. This means that from time to time a man will have exacerbations, and there is also a risk of developing infertility.
Infectious prostatitis can lead to blood poisoning and death of the patient, so there is no time to lose trying to deal with the pathology on your own.
Modern diagnostic methods
The clinical picture is so intense that the doctor can make the correct diagnosis based on the symptoms listed above. In addition to the formal complaints, the history received at the reception is also taken into account - so it is important to contact a medical institution in good time.
To choose the right treatment tactics, it is important to understand more precisely what is going on in the body and which pathogen is causing the pathology. Therefore, some examination is required in this case.
During the appointment, the doctor will perform the following activities:
- It will measure body temperature in the anus and armpit (with infectious acute prostatitis, there will be a difference in readings of up to 0. 5 ° C).
- Check the condition of the lymph nodes in the pelvic area.
- Touch the lower abdomen, perineum, lower back.
Prostate massage with this form of the disease is not performed due to severe pain. Also, such manipulation can cause the transmission of infection from the gland to other organs and systems, with consequent possible death. Even the suspicion of infectious prostatitis is a contraindication for such operations.
Laboratory tests of blood, urine, bacterial cultures are important. With their help, you can determine the type of pathogen and confirm the inflammation.
From the instrumental methods can be used TRUS, CT, MRI, urometry (to determine the rate of urine outflow) and other methods, at the discretion of the treating physician. In most cases, corrective ultrasound examination in combination with laboratory methods and data from the history is sufficient. Computed tomography or MRI scans are performed if a tumor is suspected or in suspicious cases.
Modern principles of treatment
If there are no strong signs of poisoning of the body, treatment is allowed at home. Otherwise, hospitalization, intravenous infusions of antibacterial agents and increased monitoring by medical staff will be required. In either case, a sick man needs to rest in bed - even light physical activity can cause the infection to spread through the bloodstream.
The treatment of patients aims to achieve two goals: the fight against the pathogenic microflora and the improvement of the general well-being. Overall, the move in this direction is designed to prevent death or the development of complications.
If during laboratory tests it is found that infectious prostatitis is caused by bacteria (which is more common), the use of antibacterial agents should become the basis of treatment. If just such a treatment is started, then an improvement in well-being will come after 2-3 days. However, for this, the drug must be chosen correctly. The duration of the drug is also important - it can be up to a month, depending on the specific drug and the degree of prostate damage. Treatment can not be stopped.
In addition to the type of pathogen, the doctor must take into account certain other factors.
- Individual characteristics of the patient, the condition of the heart, liver and kidneys.
- If possible, make a choice in favor of a stronger drug, overshadowing such bacteriostatic agents.
- The effect of treatment with antibacterial drugs should be bactericidal, ie aimed at destroying the pathogen and not stopping its growth in prostate tissues.
For these reasons, infectious prostatitis cannot be treated on its own. Without medical education and the skills to interpret diagnostic measures, it is almost impossible to choose the right antibacterial substance. Delay, as well as the wrong treatment in this case, can cost lives.
The intensity of the pain in infectious prostatitis is such that standard analgesics and anticonvulsants may be useless. In such exceptional cases, to relieve the pain, the doctor may prescribe drugs in a short time.
Can also be assigned:
- Diuretics (if there is no acute urinary retention) to prevent cystitis.
- Laxatives (if there is constipation) to relieve pressure on the prostate gland.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Alpha-blockers - to normalize the urination process.
- Muscle relaxants to relieve pelvic floor muscle spasm.
If acute urinary retention has begun during infectious prostatitis, a urinary catheter may be placed in the patient.
If during treatment it becomes apparent that the patient's well-being is not improving, this is one reason to do extra TRUS to rule out a possible prostate abscess. In doubtful cases, a biopsy of the prostate tissue can be performed. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient undergoes emergency surgery to open and drain the abscess. Antibiotic treatment will not be canceled in this case.
Risk of infectious prostatitis
If a man consulted a doctor in time and did not violate his prescriptions, recovery almost always happens. In some variants of events, a transition to a chronic form or the onset of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is possible.
Other possible consequences:
- pyelonephritis or cystitis.
- blood poisoning?
- the formation of fistulas.
Infectious prostatitis responds well to treatment if started early. For this, a man must listen to his state of health. If the pain starts in the perineal area with a simultaneous rise in body temperature in the anus and impaired urination, you should consult a doctor immediately. The use of folk remedies and the advice of a friend or spouse can end in disaster.